Hispanic Children and Obesity Risk

Hispanic Children In U.S. At Greater Risk For Obesity Than Other Ethnic/Racial Groups

The prevalence of overweight in the US population is among the highest in Mexican-American children and adolescents. In a study of 1,030 Hispanic children between the ages of 4 and 19, published in the June 2009 issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, researchers from the Baylor College of Medicine found less than optimal diets in both overweight and non-overweight participants.

Hispanic Children and Obesity Risk

Hispanic Children In U.S. At Greater Risk For Obesity Than Other Ethnic/Racial Groups

Hispanic Children In U.S. At Greater Risk For Obesity Than Other Ethnic/Racial Groups

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), in 2005-2006 the prevalence of overweight among children (2-19 years) from all ethnic/racial groups was 15.5%. For Mexican-American males and females (2-19 years) the prevalence was 23.2% and 18.5%, respectively. Although the US environment encourages a sedentary lifestyle and excess food intake, the Hispanic population is burdened with additional risk factors for childhood obesity including parental obesity, low socioeconomic status (SES), recent immigration, acculturation to US diet and lifestyle, and limited health insurance coverage.

The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to identify genetic and environmental factors contributing to childhood obesity in the Hispanic population. It provided the novel opportunity to assess the diet of a large cohort of Hispanic children from low-SES families at high risk for obesity (1,030 children from 319 families in Houston, Texas). On average, 91% of parents were overweight or obese and parental income and education levels were low. Food insecurity was reported by 49% of households.

Writing in the article, Nancy F. Butte, PhD, Professor, USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, states, “The diets of these low-SES Hispanic children were adequate in most essential nutrients, but suboptimal for the promotion of long-term health. Diet quality did not satisfy US dietary guidelines for fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, fiber, added sugar, and sodium. Although energy intake was higher in overweight children, food sources, diet quality, and macro- and micronutrient composition were similar between non-overweight and overweight siblings…Knowledge of the dietary intake of children from low-SES Hispanic families at high risk for obesity will provide a basis on which to build nutritional interventions and policy that are appropriately tailored to population sub-groups.”

In a commentary published in the same issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, PhD, Professor of Nutritional Sciences & Public Health, Director, NIH EXPORT Center for Eliminating, Health Disparities among Latinos (CEHDL), University of Connecticut, Storrs, asks whether the process of acculturation into “mainstream” US society is having negative effects on Hispanics. Citing numerous studies, he explores many of the factors that both support and contradict the assimilation argument, and concludes that while acculturation is likely a negative influence, further study is warranted. He writes, “However, we still need to elucidate the mechanisms and the extent to which acculturation to the USA ‘mainstream’ culture per se explain deterioration in dietary quality, and increased risks for obesity and associated chronic diseases among Latinos. Filling in this gap in knowledge is essential for developing culturally appropriate and behavioral change based interventions targeting Latinos with different levels of acculturation.”

The article is “Nutrient adequacy and diet quality in non-overweight and overweight Hispanic children of low socioeconomic status – the VIVA LA FAMILIA Study” by Theresa A. Wilson, MS, RD, Anne L. Adolph, BS, and Nancy F. Butte, PhD. The commentary is “Dietary quality among Latinos: Is acculturation making us sick?” by Rafael Pérez-Escamilla, PhD. Both appear in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Volume 109, Issue 6 (June 2009) published by Elsevier.

Source: APA – Elsevier (2009, June 4). Hispanic Children In U.S. At Greater Risk For Obesity Than Other Ethnic/Racial Groups. ScienceDaily. Retrieved

‘Frente a la Crisis – Facing the Crisis’

Economy crisis impact on Latinos examined in new Radio Bilingue series

Families across the nation are feeling the dire effects of the current economic crisis but probably none more so than Latinos, who may be the hardest hit by job loss, home foreclosures, loss of health insurance and deeper poverty – topics that are the focus of a new national series by Radio Bilingue: “Frente a la Crisis/Facing the Crisis.”

Economy crisis impact on Latinos examined in new Radio Bilingue series

Economy crisis impact on Latinos examined in new Radio Bilingue series

This comprehensive, multimedia series is funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting and The California Endowment. “Frente a la Crisis/Facing the Crisis” takes an inside look at the effects of the economic crisis in the Latino community, and is airing on Satelite Radio Bilingue’s nationally-distributed news and talk services, Linea Abierta and Edicion Semanaria de Noticiero Latino.

Linea Abierta broadcasts daily at noon and Edicion Semanaria airs weekly on Fridays at 4 p.m. — each featuring weekly episodes of the series over a twelve month period that began in September.

Linea Abierta broadcasts weekly talk shows on the economy, featuring roundtable discussions and interviews with newsmakers, and Edicion Semanaria airs in-depth feature reports, on issues ranging from health insurance loss, to accessing food to green jobs.

In addition, the national coverage will include visits by the Linea Abierta team to the epicenters of the recession to broadcast stories from the communities hardest hit by the economy. The live broadcasts will portray on the national airwaves outstanding efforts at the local level, including community-organizing initiatives, citizen ideas and government programs to help workers and homeowners get out of the economic crisis. The network’s online platforms also are being used as part of the informational media campaign.

In Central California — ground zero for joblessness and foreclosures in the nation — the project includes a specialized look at the impact of unemployment on Latinos through live talk shows, promotional spots and educational messages on employment issues and services.

Radio Bilingue is working with community partners to connect Spanish-speaking Latinos with resources to navigate the unemployment insurance system, apply for benefits, learn about eligibility requirements, emergency compensation, extended benefits, reemployment services, self-employment and small business help.

Funds are provided by: The California Endowment, Evelyn and Walter Haas Jr. Fund, James Irvine Foundation, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, and ZeroDivide Foundation.

www.radiobilingue.org

Source: Radio Bilingue

First Bilingual Educational Toy Brand, Ingenio(TM), Hits the U.S. Market

Alpharetta, Ga.-based Smart Play, LLC has launched Ingenio(TM), the first entirely bilingual educational toy brand and games in the United States. The product line features 10 portable, affordable toys and games that teach a comprehensive range of early learning skills in English and Spanish – fine motor, reading, writing, math, vocabulary, geography and problem solving.

First Bilingual Educational Toy Brand, Ingenio(TM), Hits the U.S. Market

First Bilingual Educational Toy Brand, Ingenio(TM), Hits the U.S. Market

Ingenio’s bilingual product line ranges from electronic learning toys and puzzles to educational games. All products emphasize English and Spanish equally to enable the child to learn a second language easily. The light-weight, travel-friendly products offer children dynamic, “unplugged” playtime, free from the chain-and-drain of a computer or television.

Unlocking a world of opportunities, Ingenio helps preschool and grade school children (ages 3-8 years) learn both languages in the context of fun. Smart Play’s products are bilingual by design(TM) to facilitate learning at an early age, which research indicates is the prime time for language acquisition.

The proven benefits of bilingualism include greater cognitive flexibility, improved powers of concept formation and enhanced creativity. Spanish is the second-most prominent language in the country, and nearly 25 percent of all U.S. children between the ages of 3 and 6 are of Hispanic origin (a number that is quickly on the rise). This makes Ingenio an ingenious tool to form future leaders.

“Finally, a foreign-language educational toy company!” said Liza Sanchez, founder of Escuela Bilingüe Internacional, in response to Ingenio. “As a parent, I am thrilled to finally be able to provide toys that represent our home language. As a teacher, I have been looking for years for products that can help my young students advance their Spanish education both in and outside of the classroom. The cognitive and social benefits of becoming bilingual have made many parents realize the importance of learning a second language.”

In addition to recognition from educational leaders, Ingenio has already garnered accolades from the toy industry. Ingenio recently received the 2009 Dr. Toy’s Best Vacation Product and Creative Child Magazine 2009 Top Toy of the Year.

Not only is Ingenio innovative and educational but also budget-friendly. Eight of the 10 products are less than $ 15 and all products are available at Amazon.com and will soon be available at Toys “R” Us.com.

About Smart Play

Smart Play provides safe, affordable, innovative and educational products to enrich your child’s mind. Play is the perfect way to reinforce and extend the skills children learn at home and at school. Many of our products are designed to grow with your child by offering age-appropriate activities with progressive levels of difficulty.

For more information about Ingenio products, please visit our bilingual site: www.smartplay.us.

Source: Smart Play, LLC

Hispanic Immigrants’ Children Fall Behind Peers Early, Study Finds

A great example of a study (or its interpretation) that misleads readers. This is a problem that stems from poverty and parents with a low educational level. This is definitely not related to the parent’s immigration status. Children from Hispanic immigrants whose parents have a very high level of education do even better than their American counterpart. Feel free to comment.

Havi Goffan

Here is the article:

The children of Hispanic immigrants tend to be born healthy and start life on an intellectual par with other American children, but by the age of 2 they begin to lag in linguistic and cognitive skills, a new study by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, shows.

Hispanic Immigrants’ Children Fall Behind Peers Early, Study Finds

Hispanic Immigrants’ Children Fall Behind Peers Early, Study Finds

The study highlights a paradox that has bedeviled educators and Hispanic families for some time. By and large, mothers from Latin American countries take care of their health during their pregnancies and give birth to robust children, but those children fall behind their peers in mental development by the time they reach grade school, and the gap tends to widen as they get older.

The new Berkeley study suggests the shortfall may start even before the children enter preschool, supporting calls in Washington to spend more on programs that coach parents to stimulate their children with books, drills and games earlier in their lives.

“Our results show a very significant gap even at age 3,” said Bruce Fuller, one of the study’s authors and a professor of education at Berkeley. “If we don’t attack this disparity early on, these kids are headed quickly for a pretty dismal future in elementary school.”

Professor Fuller said blacks and poor whites also lagged behind the curve, suggesting that poverty remained a factor in predicting how well a young mind develops. But the drop-off in the cognitive scores of Hispanic toddlers, especially those from Mexican backgrounds, was steeper than for other groups and could not be explained by economic status alone, he said.

One possible explanation is that a high percentage of Mexican and Latin American immigrant mothers have less formal schooling than the average American mother, white or black, the study’s authors said. These mothers also tend to have more children than middle-class American families, which means the toddlers get less one-on-one attention from their parents.

“The reading activities, educational games and performing the ABCs for Grandma — so often witnessed in middle-class homes — are less consistently seen in poor Latino households,” Professor Fuller said.

The study is based on data collected on 8,114 infants born in 2001 and tracked through the first two years of life by the National Center for Education Statistics. The findings will be published this week in Maternal and Child Health Journal, and a companion report will appear this fall in the medical journal Pediatrics.

The analysis showed that at 9 to 15 months, Hispanic and white children performed equally on tests of basic cognitive skills, like understanding their mother’s speech and using words and gestures. But from 24 to 36 months, the Hispanic children fell about six months behind their white peers on measures like word comprehension, more complex speech and working with their mothers on simple tasks.

The study comes as the Obama administration has been pushing for more money to help prepare infants and toddlers for school. In September, the House passed an initiative that would channel $8 billion over eight years to states with plans to improve programs serving young children.

In addition, the economic stimulus package included $3 billion for Head Start preschools and for the Early Head Start program, which helps young parents stimulate their children’s mental development.

Eugene Garcia, an education professor at Arizona State University, said the Berkeley-led study confirmed findings by others that the children of Hispanic immigrants, for reasons that remain unclear, tend to fall behind white students by as much as a grade level by the third grade.

“It seems like what might be the most helpful with Latino kids is early intervention,” Dr. Garcia said.

Carmen Rodriguez, the director of the Columbia University Head Start in New York City, said there was a waiting list of parents, most of them Hispanic, who want to take Early Head Start classes with their children.

Dr. Rodriguez said the study’s findings might reflect a surge in interest in early childhood education on the part of middle-class Americans, rather than any deficiency in the immigrant homes.

“Any low-income toddler is disadvantaged if they don’t get this kind of stimulation,” she said.

Source: The New York Times – By James McKinley Jr

Hispanic Viewers Consume More Content Via Interactive Outlets

Rentrak Signs Cinelatino – The Leading Spanish Language Movie Channel

— As Hispanic Viewers Consume More Content Via Interactive Outlets, Networks are Turning to Rentrak to Understand the Video-On-Demand Market —
Rentrak Corporation (Nasdaq: RENT), a multi-screen media measurement and research company serving the advertising and entertainment industry, today announced a multi-year deal with Cinelatino, the leading Spanish-language premium film channel in the United States that offers the most current blockbusters and critically-acclaimed titles from Mexico, Latin America, Spain and the United States. To ensure it continues to offer the best programming based on viewer preferences, Cinelatino selected Rentrak’s OnDemand Essentials service in order to have access to detailed video-on-demand (VOD) insights.

“The Hispanic population is the largest and fastest growing demographic group in the U.S. and OnDemand Essentials will provide Cinelatino with key information needed to meet the growing demand for quality Spanish language content on the on-demand platform,” said Carol Hinnant, Senior Vice President of Business Development, Advanced Media and Information division at Rentrak. “With almost 20 different VOD channels targeted at the Hispanic market, Rentrak’s OnDemand Essentials service provides the necessary knowledge and trends to help programmers targeting the Hispanic demographic get a competitive edge by understanding what resonates with consumers.”

“The video-on-demand platform offers significant insight into our consumers’ viewing preferences,” said Jim McNamara, Chairman, Cinelatino. “The information provided by OnDemand Essentials is the knowledge we need to ensure we continue to deliver programming that meets our target consumers’ desires and maintain our position as the leading destination for ‘event’ movies and series in Spanish.”

Rentrak’s OnDemand Essentials processes daily, census-level on-demand data representing 70 million set-top boxes from 33 MSOs and 100% of the top-25 operators offering video-on-demand with their extensive on-demand data being used by more than 125 content provider subscription clients.

About Rentrak Corporation (NASDAQ: RENT)
Rentrak Corporation is an industry-advancing media measurement and research company, serving the most recognizable names in the entertainment industry. Reaching across numerous platforms including box office, home entertainment, on-demand and linear television, broadband and mobile, Rentrak provides exclusive and actionable insight for our clients and partners. From the introduction of our revolutionary Pay-Per-Transaction® distribution and revenue-sharing system, which equipped Rentrak with the intelligence and ability to deal with large, complex data streams, to the company’s exclusive Essentials(TM) suite of services, Rentrak has redefined digital audience measurement. Rentrak is headquartered in Portland, Oregon, with additional offices in Los Angeles, New York City and Miami/Ft Lauderdale. For more information on any of Rentrak’s services, please visit www.rentrak.com.

About Cinelatino
Cinelatino is the leading Spanish-language premium film channel in the United States, with more than 3.6 million subscribers on major cable, satellite and telephony providers throughout North America. Cinelatino offers the most current Spanish-language blockbusters and critically-acclaimed titles from Mexico, Latin America, Spain and the U.S. Cinelatino is jointly-owned by Grupo MVS, InterMedia Partners and Panamax Films.

SOURCE Rentrak Corporation

10.05% of Hispanic Americans consider themselves lactose intolerant

Lactose Intolerant Hispanic Rates May Be Significantly Lower Than Previously Believed

New study sheds light on self-reported prevalence rates

Prevalence of lactose intolerance may be far lower than previously estimated, according to a study in the latest issue of Nutrition Today.(1)The study, which uses data from a national sample of three ethnic groups, reveals that the overall prevalence rate of self-reported lactose intolerance is 12 percent – with 7.72 percent of European Americans, 10.05 percent of Hispanic Americans and 19.5 percent of African Americans who consider themselves lactose intolerant.

10.05% of Hispanic Americans consider themselves lactose intolerant

10.05% of Hispanic Americans consider themselves lactose intolerant

These new findings indicate that previous estimates of lactose intolerance incidence – based on the incidence of lactose maldigestion – may be overestimated by wide margins. Previous studies have found lactose maldigestion, or low lactase activity in the gut, to occur in approximately 15 percent of European Americans, 50 percent of Mexican Americans and 80 percent of African Americans.(2,3,4) The new study shows that lactose intolerance, based on self-reported data, may actually occur far less frequently than presumed.
“There’s so much confusion surrounding lactose intolerance,” said Theresa Nicklas, DrPH, of the USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine and lead study author. “By getting a better handle on the true number of people who deal with this condition every day, the nutrition community can be better equipped to educate and provide dietary guidance for Americans, including strategies to help meet dairy food recommendations for those who self-report lactose intolerance.”

Since increasing daily consumption of dairy can be an effective strategy for ensuring adequate intake of shortfall nutrients (such as calcium, magnesium and potassium),(5) those who do experience symptoms of lactose intolerance should know there are several practical solutions that can allow for consumption of milk and milk products. In fact, according to a recent study in the Journal of Sensory Studies, adults who identified themselves as lactose intolerant reported a higher liking of lactose-free cow’s milk compared to non-dairy, soy-based substitute beverage.(6)

“Those with lactose intolerance are often relieved to know they can still enjoy the great taste and health benefits of dairy if they follow certain strategies,” said Orsolya Palacios, PhD, RD, and lead author of the study. “The symptoms of lactose intolerance vary greatly for each individual, and there are options in the dairy case that allow almost everyone to take advantage of the health benefits provided by the recommended three daily servings of dairy foods.”

Recommended Solutions for Incorporating Dairy
Several health authorities have addressed ways that those with lactose intolerance can benefit from dairy’s unique nutrient package of nine essential nutrients including calcium, potassium, magnesium and vitamin A, identified as “nutrients of concern” by the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans.(7) The Dietary Guidelines encourages people with lactose intolerance to try lower-lactose dairy food options to ensure they get the essential nutrients found in dairy. In a supplement to the October issue of the Journal of the National Medical Association (JNMA), the National Medical Association states that dairy milk alone provides a key package of essential nutrients, and that African Americans should use dietary strategies to increase the amount of dairy foods they consume. And in a 2006 report, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends children with lactose intolerance still consume dairy foods to help meet calcium, vitamin D, protein and other nutrient needs essential for bone health and overall growth. The report cautions that lactose intolerance should not require avoidance of dairy foods.(8)

The National Dairy Council has identified some strategies to help people with lactose intolerance enjoy the taste and nutrition of dairy:

  • The good news is lactose-free milk is regular milk, just without the lactose.
    • It provides the same unique package of nine essential nutrients as found in the equivalent form of regular milk (reduced-fat, fat-free etc.) – calcium, potassium, phosphorus, protein, vitamins A, D and B12, riboflavin and niacin (niacin equivalents).
  • Try drinking small amounts of milk with meals.
    • Consuming milk with other foods or a meal can make it easier to digest, so try milk on cereal, in smoothies or licuados, and enjoy a glass of milk with lunch or dinner.
  • Try cooking with milk.
    • Make oatmeal with milk instead of water and add milk to soups, sauces, casseroles, etc.
  • Try eating yogurt.
    • Yogurts that contain live and active cultures can make it easier for the digestive system to digest lactose.
  • Try aged cheeses.
    • Aged cheeses like Swiss, Parmesan, Gouda, Colby, provolone, Cheddar, Edam, Fontina, Gruyere, Muenster and Monterey Jack have very little lactose.

For more information, visit www.nationaldairycouncil.org, and get the latest dairy and nutrition news from NDC’s blog,www.thedairyreport.com.

10.05% of Hispanic Americans consider themselves lactose intolerant
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National Dairy Council® (NDC) is the nutrition research, education and communications arm of Dairy Management Inc(TM). On behalf of U.S. dairy farmers, NDC provides science-based nutrition information to, and in collaboration with, a variety of stakeholders committed to fostering a healthier society, including health professionals, educators, school nutrition directors, academia, industry, consumers and media. Established in 1915, NDC comprises a staff of nutrition science researchers, registered dietitians and communications experts dedicated to educating the public on the health benefits of consuming milk and milk products throughout a person’s lifespan.

In addition, NDC funds independent research to aid in the ongoing discovery of information about dairy foods’ important role in a healthy lifestyle. This research provides insights to industry for new dairy product innovation. In partnership with its network of state and regional dairy councils, NDC disseminates nutrition programs, materials and research to support government recommendations for improved nutrition for Americans, including consumption of at least three servings of nutrient-rich low-fat or fat-free milk and milk products a day.

(1) Nicklas TA, Qu H, Hughes SO. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in a multi-ethnic sample of adults. Nutrition Today 2009; 44(5):186-187

(2) Jarvis JK, Miller GD. Overcoming the barrier of lactose intolerance to reduce health disparities. J Natl Med Assoc 2002; 94:55-56

(3) Sabi T. Hypolactasia and lactase persistence; historical review and terminology. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. Supplement 1994; 202:1-6

(4) Scrimshaw NS, Murray ED. Prevalence of lactose maldigestion. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48:1086-1098

(5) Nicklas TA, O’Neil CE, Fulgoni III VL. The role of dairy in meeting the recommendations for shortfall nutrients in the American diet. J Am Coll Nutr 2009; 28:1S-9S

(6) Palacios OM, Badran J, Drake MA, Reisner M, Moskowitz HR. Consumer acceptance of cow’s milk versus soy beverages; impact of ethnicity, lactose tolerance and sensory performance segmentation. Journal of Sensory Studies 2009; 24 (5): 731-748(18)

(7) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. 6th Edition, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 2005.

(8) American Academy of Pediatrics, Lactose intolerance in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2006; 118 (3):1279-1286

For more information:
NDC Media Hotline
312-240-2880
ndc@dairyinfo.com
SOURCE National Dairy Council

Census Preparation Activities Lagging Behind in Philadelphia

Pew Report Examines Census Preparations in Philadelphia and Other Major Cities

A new study from The Pew Charitable Trusts’ Philadelphia Research Initiative finds that Philadelphia is lagging behind other major cities in mounting the kind of local outreach and awareness campaign for the 2010 Census that many experts consider important for achieving a full count.

Pew Report Examines Census Preparation Activities in Philadelphia and Other Major Cities

Pew Report Examines Census Preparation Activities in Philadelphia and Other Major Cities

The study,Preparing for the 2010 Census: How Philadelphia and Other Cities Are Struggling and Why It Matters, looked at the preparations of Philadelphia and 10 other major cities for the 2010 Census. These include the five cities with larger populations than Philadelphia–New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Houston and Phoenix–and five chosen for their similarities to Philadelphia and their experience in dealing with the Census–Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Detroit and Pittsburgh.

The report finds that almost all of the cities studied have less money and fewer staffers for this Census than they did in 2000.

“Census preparation really matters,” said Thomas Ginsberg, project manager of Pew’s Philadelphia Research Initiative. “The outreach efforts are a cross between an election campaign and a municipal self-promotion drive, with very real ramifications that will be felt for the next 10 years.”

Philadelphia officials are planning to announce their local outreach campaign soon. And officials interviewed for the study say they are confident of their ability to catch up and conduct an effective outreach effort. In addition, they have launched the city’s first-ever challenge to the official population estimates the U.S. Census Bureau issues each year. The challenge, if fully accepted by the bureau, would produce a number showing that Philadelphia’s population is now growing after six decades of decline.

Seven of the other 10 cities had appointed or hired Census coordinators by last summer and had launched their citywide coordinating committees by early October. The other three–Boston, Chicago and Detroit–already are lined up to receive considerable financial and organizing support from local and statewide donor networks established specifically for the Census.

Preparingforthe 2010Census lays out what is at stake for cities: Without strong outreach and technical preparation by cities, the Census Bureau may have trouble improving its urban counts over previous Censuses and raising the below-average rate at which residents participate in its official once-a-decade count. That could lead to greater undercounts of certain groups or an entire city, which in turn would affect the population basis on which billions of tax dollars will be distributed over the coming decade and by which legislative seats–federal, state and local–will be allocated in 2011.

The stakes are particularly high in Philadelphia and other big cities that have high concentrations of the hard-to-count groups, including renters, immigrants, African Americans and Hispanics. According to an analysis conducted for the Philadelphia Research Initiative by Temple University statistician Eugene P. Ericksen, the Census Bureau likely undercounted Philadelphia’s population by an estimated 8,326 people a decade ago, or about 0.5 percent. Many of the other cities included in the report had similar or larger estimated undercounts.

About $430 billion in federal funds were distributed to local governments and residents in fiscal 2008, the last year for which such numbers are available, based at least in part on Census data. Analysts at the Brookings Institution say that Philadelphia and its residents received about $2,796 per capita, through Medicaid, housing vouchers, transportation funding and other programs. Due to the ways that the funding formulas work, the amount of money that would be generated by counting additional Philadelphians would be less than $2,796. But how much less is hard to say. It would depend on numerous factors, including the demographic characteristics of the individuals.

Apart from outreach campaigns, the study found that all 11 cities, including Philadelphia, have been participating in the voluntary technical Census Bureau programs that many experts consider more important to achieving a full count. The programs include a massive updating of household addresses, through which the cities submitted more than 1.5 million new or corrected addresses for the bureau to target next spring.

“For Philadelphia, a significant impact of the Census results could be in terms of the city’s psyche and its ability to promote itself. The city would get a lift if the headcount in 2010–or the challenge being launched over the recent population estimates–shows a population gain,” said Ginsberg. The count in 2000 was 1,517,550, and the most recent estimate was 1,447,395. The city’s challenge contends the recent figure should have been 1,536,171, higher than either previous figure. The Census Bureau is expected to rule on the city’s figure by the end of 2009. Pew’s research found that many cities have no plans to appropriate any public funds specifically for Census preparations; this is the case in Philadelphia, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit and Pittsburgh, although all of those cities, including Philadelphia, expect to make use of existing staff and resources with some staff help from the Census Bureau. A decade ago, the city put in $200,000 and received $165,000 in philanthropic donations.

The shortfalls are leading many cities to rely on unpaid volunteers and grassroots organizing even more than in the past. City officials in Philadelphia are still hoping to receive funds from private sources. The William Penn Foundation has committed $12,350 for data analysis; city and Census Bureau officials held an initial briefing with other potential local funders in late September.

About the Report

To prepare this report, Thomas Ginsberg, project manager of Pew’s Philadelphia Research Initiative, studied numerous reports about the Census and talked to officials at the Census Bureau, independent experts and officials in Philadelphia and the 10 other cities. The report includes independent work done by Eugene P. Ericksen of Temple University, a nationally-recognized expert in assessing the accuracy of the Census, and by the Brookings Institution.

About The PhiladelphiaResearch Initiative

The Philadelphia Research Initiative was created by Pew in fall 2008 to study critical issues facing Philadelphia and provide impartial research and analysis for the benefit of decision makers, thenews media and the public. The initiative conducts public opinion polling, produces in–depth reports, and publishes briefs that illuminate front–and-center issues.

AboutPew

The Pew Charitable Trusts (www.pewtrusts.org) is driven by the power of knowledge tosolve today’s most challenging problems. Pew applies a rigorous, analytical approach to improve public policy, inform the public and stimulate civic life. We partner with a diverse range of donors, public and private organizations and concerned citizens who share our commitment to fact–based solutions and goal–driven investments to improve society.

SOURCE Pew Charitable Trusts

Día de la Raza or Columbus Day?

Día de la Raza - Columbus Day

Día de la Raza – Columbus Day

What do you really know about Día de la Raza? Where was it first celebrated? Why Raza and Columbus Day? How do they celebrate it in Spain? Read on and find out.

The date of Columbus’ arrival in the Americas is celebrated in many countries in Latin America, although not in Brazil, (and in some Latino communities in the United States) as the Día de la Raza (“day of the race or breed”), commemorating the first encounters of Europeans and Native Americans. The day was first celebrated in Argentina in 1917, Venezuela in 1921, Chile in 1922, and Mexico in 1928. The day was also celebrated under this title in Spain until 1957, when it was changed to the Día de la Hispanidad (“Hispanicity Day”), and in Venezuela until 2002, when it was changed to the Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) by President Hugo Chavez. Día de la Raza in many countries is seen as a counter to Columbus Day. It is used to resist the arrival of Europeans to the Americas and is used to celebrate the native races.

Día de la Raza in the U.S.

In the U.S. Día de la Raza has served as a time of mobilization for pan-ethnic Latino activists, particularly in the 1960s. Since then, La Raza has served as a periodic rallying cry for Hispanic activists. The first Hispanic March on Washington occurred on Columbus Day in 1996. The name has remained in the largest Hispanic social justice organization, the National Council of La Raza.

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Thought of the Day

small minds

small minds

Sotomayor first Hispanic and third woman on the Supreme Court

MONDAY, OCTOBER 5: SUPREME COURT TERM OPENS
Profile America — Monday, October 5th. As National Hispanic Heritage Month continues, today marks the first day of the current Supreme Court session. As the justices file in, their ranks will include Associate Justice Sonia Sotomayor, confirmed by the Senate in August. Her official investiture ceremony was held last month. She already has participated in one case left over from the previous session. Sotomayor is the 111th justice to sit on the nation’s highest court. She is the first Hispanic and the third woman on the Supreme Court. Across the U.S., there are just over 1 million lawyers, nearly one-third of them women and just over 4 percent Hispanic.

You can find these and more facts about America from the U.S. Census Bureau online at www.census.gov.

Sources: Chase’s Calendar of Events 2009, p. 495

Statistical Abstract of the United States 2009, t. 596

Profile America is produced by the Public Information Office of the U.S. Census Bureau. These daily features are available as produced segments, ready to air, on a monthly CD or on the Internet at http://www.census.gov (look under the “Newsroom” button).

SOURCE U.S. Census Bureau

(AP Photo/Charles Dharapak, File)

How Attached Are Latino Immigrants to Their Native Country?

How Attached Are Latino Immigrants to Their Native Country?

How Attached Are Latino Immigrants to Their Native Country?

Most Latino immigrants maintain some kind of connection to their native country by sending remittances, traveling back or telephoning relatives, but the extent of their attachment varies considerably. Only one-in-ten (9%) do all three of these so-called transnational activities; these immigrants can be considered highly attached to their home country. A much larger minority (28%) of foreign-born Latinos is involved in none of these activities and can be considered to have a low level of engagement with the country of origin. Most Latino immigrants (63%) show moderate attachment to their home country; they engage in one or two of these activities.

Between Here and There: How Attached Are Latino Immigrants to Their Native Country?

Latino immigrants who have been in the U.S. for decades and those who arrived as children are less connected than those who arrived more recently or migrated as adults. There are also significant differences by country of origin, with Colombians and Dominicans maintaining more active connections than Mexicans, and with Cubans having the least contact.
Whether Latino immigrants maintain active, moderate or limited connections is an important marker of their attitudes toward the U.S., their native country and their own lives as migrants. Those with the highest levels of engagement have deeper attachments to their country of origin than immigrants whose connections are less robust. They also have more favorable views of their native country in comparisons with the U.S. Nonetheless, a clear majority of even these immigrants see their future in the U.S. rather than in the countries from which they come.
Most Latino immigrants reveal moderate levels of engagement with the home country–both in the extent of their transnational activities and in their attitudes. They maintain some connections to the country of their birth through such activities as sending money or phoning regularly. And their opinions blend optimism about life in the U.S. and positive evaluations of some aspects of American society (notably political traditions) with less favorable comparisons to their native land on other aspects (such as morals). Their attachments and identities are a mix of views that might be expected of people navigating an emotional terrain that encompasses two nations. That mix differs in several important respects, with people who have been in the U.S. longer being more ready than recent arrivals to declare this country their homeland and to describe themselves as Americans.
The Pew Hispanic Center’s 2006 National Survey of Latinos collected data on a variety of transnational activities and a wide range of attitudes and beliefs. This report is based on a new analysis of that survey data, which for the first time examines the extent to which Latino immigrants with different characteristics maintain connections to their native lands and assesses how different levels of transnational activities are associated with an immigrant’s views on key subjects. The analysis thus explores the question of whether maintaining connections to a country of origin is associated with more positive or negative views of the U.S., a greater or lesser sense of attachment to this country and a stronger or weaker sense of identity as an American.
Source: Pew Hispanic Center – Roger Waldinger, University of California, Los Angeles